My 17th & 18th century turned chairs are constructed without glue. All stretchers, arms and crest parts are riven, the legs are sawn from perfectly straight grained logs that I select. The legs are put in water until they sink and are ready for easy turning and maximum shrinkage. The tenons of all stretchers are turned with the ends slightly swelled so when the legs dry and shrink, about an 1/8" depending on the leg dia.,the strength is incomparable. I also saw the crest tenons slightly wedge shaped for that shrinkage as well. All the originals are made with this wonderful common sense ingenuity. Built to last!